Majalahnabawi.com – Whenever you hear the word jihad, what often comes to mind is war. Jihad is an absorption word from Arabic, which means “to mobilize all one’s potential to do something”. The term jihad was also introduced by Rasulullah SAW as an effort to control oneself from lust.
In al-Quran at least the word jihad is mentioned 41 times which can be interpreted as war. The hadiths are no less numerous with the theme of jihad or war, such as information about the virtues of participating in war, ethics in war, goals and even strategies that can be used.
The war strategy by carrying out suicide bombings has become popular since the 20th century. At that time. However, there are differences among scholars in the tactics of warfare by carrying out suicide bombings. This difference of opinion certainly occurs due to the existence of arguments that are generally seen as contradictory to one another.
The argument which confirms that a Muslim must take care of his soul;
The argument from the verses of al-Quran:
وَمَنْ يَقْتُلْ مُؤْمِناً مُتَعَمِّداً فَجَزَاؤُهُ جَهَنَّمُ خَالِداً فِيْهَا وَغَضِبَ الله عَلَيْهِ وَلَعَنَهُ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُ عَذَابًا عَظِيْمًا.
Meaning: And whoever kills a believer on purpose, then the reward will be hell, he will live in it forever. Allah was angry with him, and cursed him and prepared a great punishment for him.
The argument the hadith:
عَنْ عَبْدالله بن عَمْرٍو عن النبي ﷺ قال: الكَبَائِرُ: الإشْرَاكُ بالله، وَعُقُوقُ الوَالِدَيْنِ، وَقَتْلُ النَّفْسِ، واليَمِينُ الغَمُوسُ.
Meaning: from Abdullah bin Umar said that the Prophet Muhammad said: things that are included in grave sins are associating partners with Allah, committing disobedience to parents, killing a soul and giving perjury.
The argument allows that there is nothing wrong with killing a soul;
The argument from the verses of the al-Quran:
وَإِذْ قَالَ مُوسَىٰ لِقَوْمِهِۦ يَٰقَوْمِ إِنَّكُمْ ظَلَمْتُمْ أَنفُسَكُم بِٱتِّخَاذِكُمُ ٱلْعِجْلَ فَتُوبُوٓا۟ إِلَىٰ بَارِئِكُمْ فَٱقْتُلُوٓا۟ أَنفُسَكُمْ ذَٰلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ عِندَ بَارِئِكُمْ فَتَابَ عَلَيْكُمْ ۚ إِنَّهُۥ هُوَ ٱلتَّوَّابُ ٱلرَّحِيمُ
Meaning: And (remember), when Musa said to his people: “O my people, in fact you have wronged yourselves because you have made a calf (your idol), then repent to God who made you and kill yourself. That is better for you on the side of God who made you; then Allah will accept your repentance. Indeed, He is the Most Recipient of repentance, the Most Merciful”.
The argument from the hadith, narrated in the hadith of Shahih muslim number 3005, about a young muslim who can cure various diseases, his ability was heard by the king and asked the young man to cure his friend’s blind disease, the young man said he was not the one who healed, but Allah the all-healing, heard the answer the king was very angry knowing that the young man had a god besides the king, then the king ordered the soldiers to sentence the young man to death but the young man was always saved by Allah, until the king’s anger grew, in the end the young man told the king to kill him in the name of Allah, and finally the young man it died.
In the hadith above, even though the young man was killed by the king, it was the young man who asked or challenged him to be killed by the king.
From some of the arguments above, the scholars differ in understanding it. There are some scholars who allow the use of war tactics with suicide bombings. But not a few scholars who disagree with this opinion.
something that is prohibited by religion, but in certain situations suicide bombings are a necessity in fighting for Islam. Sheikh Yusuf al-Qardhawi, a cleric who is of the opinion that it is permissible to use the tactic of war with suicide bombings, said that this action was in accordance with religious demands even though it had to sacrifice one or two fighters. The death of one or two people in a suicide bombing will result in the lives of many Muslims and protect the religion from the disturbances of infidels. Moreover, this action will make the enemy tremble and fear.
According to Sheikh Yusuf al-Qaradawi, the fatwas can produce benefits, some of which even received a different response from other scholars. Basically, the scholars who rejected some of their fatwas also understood the theory of makasid al-shari’ah which had been put forward by previous scholars. The majority of ushul fiqh scholars say that the permissibility of using suicide bombing tactics in war is not in accordance with the makasid al-shari’ah. This is because the consideration of prioritizing benefit and rejecting damage as one of the principles put forward in the theory of makasid al-shariah itself is not fully applied in the theory of suicide bombings is jihad.